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Nilkamal Ltd. Techno Industries. Til Ltd. Mahindra Stiller Auto Trucks Ltd. Masyc Projects Pvt Ltd. General Electric's Frame 7s and 9s, are to a large extent, CFC2 aviation technology sitting on a base on land. Last but by no means least, environmental considerations that arise directly from turbomachinery operation have grown hugely in profile since the release of the first edition of this book.

In many large corporations chemical engineers are obliged by organizational structure, to leave those considerations to environmental engineers, even though they must be just as aware of them. As the environmental factors also tie in to mechanical engineers' work, I added in references, where possible, along these lines.

If I did that to any comprehensive depth, however, we would end up with an impossibly large book. So if this book does not satisfy the chemical engineer's curiosity on enx;ironmental issues as they pertain to turbomachinery, to the required depth, know that I had to do that as a separate project. I had to decline even the invitation to give a non-binding estimate until late That's when Claire renewed our acquaintance dating to course presentations and attendance at turbomachinery conferences in our Exxon days.

It was then that I explained to Claire that I was just too busy with my various and sundry "post-retirement" jobs of writing a monthly reliability column for Hydocarbon processing Magazine, organizing yearly International Process Plant Reliability Conferences for Gulf Publishing in Houston, teaching machinery relia- bility improvement courses, playing with three grandchildren, or just plain travelling with my supportive wife June, who had stuck with me for 34 years. To make a long story short, Claire agreed to tackle the job, and as I sit here reviewing the page proofs, I'm even more convinced Claire was the fight person to do the job.

My thanks to her for going beyond what's normally needed to compile the next edition.

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Our readers and course attendees will surely benefit from her commendable and highly relevant efforts. Heinz P. Bloch Montgomery, Texas 4. Preface to the First Edition When I graduated from the New Jersey Institute of Technology in , I had a degree in Mechanical Engineering and a fairly good knowledge of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and machine design.

Little did I know, however, that application of these concepts to the real world of process machinery would be an altogether different learning process. My early suspicion that the recent engineering graduate would greatly benefit from a down-to-earth, application-oriented text on process plant machinery was further reinforced when I accepted employment with the Exxon Corporation.

There, I dealt with chemical engineers who had an equal and sometimes greater need to understand the basic operating concepts and application criteria of the machines that both of us encountered in modem process plants. It was then that I searched unsuccessfully for such a text and perhaps also thought I might, some day, assemble the material for this book.

The opportunity to synthesize the best available information into a cohesive overview text presented itself in and when I elected to retire from an interesting career in machinery reliability and maintenance-related engineering work with Exxon. I then asked some of the best companies in the process machinery field for the material to be included in this text, and many of them responded to the challenge. The guidelines were straighforward: We wanted to present the younger engineer or technician with an overview of the machinery categories he or she was likely to encounter in most process plants.

Furthermore, even the experienced individual should be able to benefit from a reference text that didn't dwell on theory but went quickly into a thorough explanation of how the equipment was designed and what made it work. Stated differently, this text is an attempt to close the gap between the machinery engineer and the chemical engineer.

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Together with my many contributors, I express the hope that we have accom- plished this goal. Bloch Montgomery, Texas xi 5. Acknowledgments Our thanks are due to the following individuals and companies that helped make the second edition a reality. Middleton, D. Lloyd and K. Mauriol from Sulzer-Burckhardt, W. Melanson and D. Kitner from Dresser-Rand K. Reich from Demag Delaval C. Coyle from Lightnin, W.

Chiang and A. Lee from Dorr-Oliver J. Armstrong from Armstrong Engineering Associates It would have been impossible to assemble the first edition text without the help and cooperation of many experienced equipment manufacturers and key individuals at each of the companies who devoted time and effort to the task. When we explained our intention to combine the best available information into a relevant text book, we received support from professionals who shared our goal of providing a practical, up-to-date text on the subject of process plant machinery.

The following companies and individuals have earned our gratitude by allowing us to reprint, adapt, or otherwise incorporate their work in this book: Reliance Electric Co. Jens E. Petersburg, FL; Pulsafeeder Co. John C.


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  8. Kathie H. Klaey and C. James Y. Jack Kahrs, Totowa, NJ conveyor-based processing systems. Three well-qualified machinery engineers and long-term associates have assisted me in compiling several chapters of this book. Hurlel Elliott, Gampa Bhat, and Perry Monroe deserve credit for their contributions to the chapters on fans, gas turbines, and electric motors, respectively.

    Last, but not least, I'm indebted to my editor, Greg Franklin, who was compelled to show more than the usual patience in bringing it all together. Introduction Modem process plants could not exist without the machinery to transport, modify, mix, compress, or otherwise manipulate the gases, liquids, and solids that move through the plant at any given time.

    There are literally hundreds of types of plant machines, and it would not be at all unusual to find 20 or 30 different types at a single process plant site. Moreover, these could be further subdivided into numerous modified versions, depending on desired throughput, pressure, processing temperature, product characteristics, design life, and a host of other parameters. In determining the scope of coverage it quickly became evident that we had to be highly selective in our choice of machinery to be included in this text.

    Dealing with every conceivable machine type would be an encyclopedic task and could result in superficial descriptions. Fortunately for the reader, and also the writer, the many process plant machines can be assigned to a few major classifications, or functional categories. Once the operating principles and typical configurations of important machine components are understood, the reader will find it considerably easier to think through the design variations or derivatives of a given machine.

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    Making this our basic premise, we decided that the majority of chemical engi- neers working in the process industries will probably encounter machinery that fits into one of the four primary classifications: 9 prime movers and power transmission machinery 9 pumping equipment 9 gas compression machinery 9 mixing, conveying, and separation equipment We describe the essentials and, if necessary, important details of a number of process machines and drivers that fit into these four primary classifications.

    Starting with electric motors, the reader will find substantial information on turbines, pumps, and compressors. We describe the essentials and, if necessary, important details of a number of process machines and drivers that fit into these four primary classifi- cations. The book commences with electric motors, and the chapters on turbines, pumps and compressors have been extended considerably. Chapters on centrifuges, scraped surface crystallizers and filtration have been added to the second edition, as well as an appendix on conversion between USCI and SI units. From a purely practical view, it was realized that- like it or not- the reader will continue to 1 encounter both systems for the foreseeable future, and 2 have to be able to convert from one system to the other.

    Accordingly, we opted to generally leave the decision to the individual contributor; thus the reader will find himself or herself immersed in both USCI and SI units. Xu Also, since some components are common to more than one genetic type of machine for example centrifugal compressors and axial compressors , they may not be described again if they are essentially similar. In this case, the reader is encouraged to use the index at the end of this text.

    The engineer, technician, and operator will benefit from an overview-type knowledge of electric motors; accordingly, we have elected first to introduce the reader to this machine category. Basic motor types, their major component parts, selection criteria, and other topics will be reviewed. To assist the reader, we have included a "motor glossary" at the end of this chapter. Squirrel-cage induction motors are the most widely used type in the size range up to horsepower. An induction motor is an alternating current device in which the primary winding on one member usually the stator is connected to the power source and the secondary winding or a squirrel-cage secondary winding on the other member usually the rotor carries the induced current.

    There is no physical elec- trical connection to the secondary winding; its current is induced. Induction motors are simple, rugged, and reliable because they have no rotating windings, slip tings, or commutators. They have good efficiency and high starting torque, but a lagging power factor; the induction motor operates below the synchronous speed that is set by the power cycles and the number of poles in the stator.